This project provides reverse tethering over
adb for Android: it
allows devices to use the internet connection of the computer they are plugged
on. It does not require any root access (neither on the device nor on the
computer). It works on GNU/Linux, Windows and Mac OS.
This project is not actively maintained anymore, only major blockers (like build issues) are fixed. It should still work, though.
Two implementations of Gnirehtet are available:
- one in Java;
- one in Rust.
Which one to choose?
Use the Rust implementation. The native binary consumes less CPU and memory, and does not require a Java runtime environment.
The relay server of Gnirehtet was initially only implemented in Java. As a benefit, the same "binary" runs on every platform having Java 8 runtime installed. It is still maintained to provide a working alternative in case of problems with the Rust version.
The Android application requires at least API 21 (Android 5.0).
For the Java version only, Java 8 (JRE) is required on your computer. On
Debian-based distros, install the package
You need a recent version of adb (where
adb reverse is implemented, it
works with 1.0.36).
It is available in the Android SDK platform tools.
On Debian-based distros, you can alternatively install the package
On Windows, if you need
adb only for this application, just download the
platform-tools and extract the following files to the
Make sure you enabled adb debugging on your device(s).
Get the app
If you use Homebrew, getting up and running is very quick. To install the Rust version:
brew install gnirehtet
Download the latest release in the flavor you want.
Then extract it.
The Linux and MacOS archives contain:
The Windows archive contains:
Then extract it. The archive contains:
Note: On Windows, replace
gnirehtet in the following
The application has no UI, and is intended to be controlled from the computer only.
If you want to activate reverse tethering for exactly one device, just execute:
Reverse tethering remains active until you press Ctrl+C.
On Windows, for convenience, you can double-click on
instead (it just executes
gnirehtet run, without requiring to open a
The very first start should open a popup to request permission:
A "key" logo appears in the status bar whenever Gnirehtet is active:
Alternatively, you can enable reverse tethering for all connected devices (present and future) by calling:
You can execute the actions separately (it may be useful if you want to reverse tether several devices simultaneously).
Start the relay server and keep it open:
apk on your Android device:
./gnirehtet install [serial]
In another terminal, for each client, execute:
./gnirehtet start [serial]
To stop a client:
./gnirehtet stop [serial]
To reset the tunnel (useful to get the connection back when a device is unplugged and plugged back while gnirehtet is active):
./gnirehtet tunnel [serial]
The serial parameter is required only if
adb devices outputs more than one
For advanced options, call
./gnirehtet without arguments to get more details.
gnirehtet program exposes a simple command-line interface that executes
lower-level commands. You can call them manually instead.
To start the relay server:
To install the apk:
adb install -r gnirehtet.apk
To start a client:
adb reverse localabstract:gnirehtet tcp:31416 adb shell am start -a com.genymobile.gnirehtet.START \ -n com.genymobile.gnirehtet/.GnirehtetActivity
To stop a client:
adb shell am start -a com.genymobile.gnirehtet.STOP \ -n com.genymobile.gnirehtet/.GnirehtetActivity
ADB defines a custom path to the
ADB=/path/to/my/adb ./gnirehtet run
GNIREHTET_APK defines a custom path to
GNIREHTET_APK=/usr/share/gnirehtet/gnirehtet.apk ./gnirehtet run
rev <<< tethering
Read the developers page.
Copyright (C) 2017 Genymobile Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.